Hydro energy resources of Tajikistan and water use problems in Central Asia
The Republic of Tajikistan is a highland with heights from 300 m to 7,495 m, and is located in the southeast part of the Central Asia, and has access neither to sea nor to ocean. 93% of all territory of the country belongs to the mountains related to the highest mountain systems of the world, such as Tien Shan, Hissar-Alay and Pamirs. Tajikistan possesses more than one thousand mountain glaciers, and the largest glacier is Fedchenko with 77 km long. The country is located in the two main rivers basin of the Central Asian region: Amu Darya and Sir-Darya. Tajikistan forms main water resources of the entire region. From the general total amount of a regional flow of 115 km³, Tajikistan directly forms 64 km³. If one takes into account a transit flow of the Sir-Darya River, so the combined water resources makes 80 km³, i.e. almost 70% of regional water resources in total.
Tajikistan is rated the 8th in the world on the general stock of hydro energy resources. As for a stock per capita (87.8 thousand kWh a year), Tajikistan is rated the 2nd in the world, and it takes the 1st place for a stock per territory unit (3.62 million kWh on 1 km²).
Potential stock of hydro energy resources of Tajikistan makes 527.06 billion kWh a year, and only 4-5% of the stock is used. Nearly 50% of hydro energy resources that make more than 280 billion kWh a year are technically feasible and economically effective for developing, taking into account advanced rate of technical and technological development.
Today hydro energy resources applicable for use in Tajikistan exceed almost twice generation of electricity in the Central Asian region (150 billion kWh per year) and make 60% of general consumption of primary energy resources in it, including coal, oil and gas, at that hydro energy resources are equally distributed throughout the territory of the country and are available not only on large, but also on the small rivers.
Potential stock of hydro energy resources of Tajikistan
|River basins||Average annual power capacity, in MWh||Average annual energy, in TWh||Share in general volume, %|